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Theses videos are provided as an additional resource for understanding aspects of various canine conditions.
  • We would like to thank the following for contributions to the morphs :
  • Henny van den Berg
  • Lee Pieterse
  • Jeanie Montford
GRIFFON BRUXELLOIS
The dog with CMSM is featured in the scientific paper “Quantitative analysis of Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in the griffon bruxellois dog” . click here to view . It shows the changes to the ‘doll like’ features with the higher forehead and larger eyes compared to a griffon without Syringomyleia.

Notice how the area at the back of the skull has been reduced behind the ears.
What is noticed here is that is that the brain is pushed up and over the cerebellum so it is crushed and disrupts the flow of cerebral spinal fluid and cause a pocket of fluid called a syrinx in the spinal cord (ie syrngomyelia)
“Quantitative analysis of Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in the griffon bruxellois dog” . click here to view .
CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL
The radiographs in this clip based on a scientific paper written in 2009 “
Chiari-like malformation in the Griffon Bruxellois
Rusbridge C, Knowler SP, Pieterse L, McFadyen AK.
The Journal of small animal practice. 2009;50(8):386-93. Click here

The different parts of the skull are coloured so you can see the changes more clearly. Notice how the back of the skull (blue) is reduced making the skull smaller there but the top of the skull (red)compensates for this. The base of the skull (yellow) becomes shorter.

The green arrows show how the stop becomes steeper as the muzzle shortens
Skull
The arrows show the key areas of change in the skull. As the skull base and back of the skull shorten (blue line), the ‘stop’ is pushed in and there is a compensatory movement of the skull growth upwards.(red arrows)

Brain
Inside the smaller skull, the large brain is forced up and over the cerebellum crushing it and it is pushed out at the hole at the back (foramen magnum). This disrupts the flow of spinal fluid in the spinal cord and, if severe, can cause syringomyelia – fluid filled pockets.
This is explained in the scientific paper “Quantitative analysis of Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in the griffon bruxellois dog” . click here to view .
The radiographs in this clip are taken from a scientific paper written in 2009 “
Chiari-like malformation in the Griffon Bruxellois
Rusbridge C, Knowler SP, Pieterse L, McFadyen AK.
The Journal of small animal practice. 2009;50(8):386-93. Click here

The different parts of the skull are coloured so you can see the changes more clearly. Notice how the back of the skull (blue) is reduced making the skull smaller there but the top of the skull (red)compensates for this. The base of the skull (yellow) becomes shorter.

This video is based on the findings in the paper Syringomyelia: Determining Risk and Protective Factors in the Conformation of the Cavalier King Charlers Spaniel (Mitchell et al., 2014). click here.

Notice the increase doming and distribution toward the front of the head in the affected individual, giving the impression of sloping at the back of the head. This forward doming was found to be directly associated with the shortness of the skull relative to its width, suggesting how the external appearance may relate to the internal appearance.